Chronic kidney disease, its symptoms, and prevention
- high blood pressure
- have heart problems (heart failure or past heart attack) and/or had a stroke
- have a family history of kidney failure
- are obese (body mass index ≥ 30)
- are a smoker
- are 60 years or older
- are of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin
- have had an episode of acute kidney injury
Symptoms, Testing, and Treatment
- high blood pressure
- changes in the amount and number of times urine are passed, e.g. at night
- changes in the appearance of urine
- blood in the urine
- puffiness e.g. legs and ankles
- pain in the kidney area
- loss of appetite
- difficulty sleeping
- lack of concentration
- shortness of breath
- nausea and vomiting
- metallic taste in the mouth
- Have bad breath
Stages of Chronic kidney disease
|Stage 1||A normal eGFR greater than or equal to 90 mL/min/1.73m2|
|Stage 2||Slightly decreased eGFR between 60–89 mL/min/1.73m2
If your kidney function is at stage 1 or 2, you only have CKD if you have albuminuria, haematuria, a pathological abnormality or a structural abnormality.
|Stage 3a||Mild–moderate decrease in eGFR between 45–59 mL/min/1.73m2|
|Stage 3b||Moderate–severe decrease in eGFR between 30–44 mL/min/1.73m2|
|Stage 4||Severe decrease in eGFR between 15–29 mL/min/1.73m2|
|Stage 5||Kidney failure as eGFR decreases to less than 15 mL/min/1.73m2 or dialysis is started|
Once discovered, you must do lifestyle changes and you have to more careful about making healthier choices about what you eat and drink, and can often be treated with medications. These lifestyle changes and treatments may help to keep CKD from getting worse. Besides, it may prevent additional health problems such as heart disease.
People who have high blood pressure or diabetes and also who are diagnosed with CKD should talk to their doctor about treating these conditions to keep their blood pressure and blood sugar under control and lower their risk for kidney failure.
Health Problems Caused and Affected by CKD
Kidney disease generally gets worse over time though treatment has been shown to slow progression. When the kidneys stop working, kidney transplant or dialysis is wanted for survival. Kidney failure treated with a kidney transplant or dialysis is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Most of the time not all patients with kidney disease progress to kidney failure and, in some patients, kidney disease progresses to kidney failure even with proper treatment and medication.
Heart Disease and Stroke
Having kidney disease extends the circumstances of also having a stroke or heart disease.
Other Health Consequences of CKD
Anemia or the low number of red blood cells can cause fatigue and weakness.
Infections can occur because of a weakened immune system.
High phosphorus and low calcium levels in the blood can cause bone problems.
High potassium levels in the blood (hyperkalemia) can cause an irregular or abnormal heartbeat.
Loss of appetite or eating less.
Excess fluids in the body causing high blood pressure, swelling in the legs, or shortness of breath because of fluid in the lungs (a condition known as pulmonary edema).
Depression or lower quality of life.