Essential vitamins for the human body

Essential vitamins for the human body

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Vitamins are essential organic nutrients, required in small amounts. They cannot be synthesized by the body. Must be obtained by outside sources like diet, rumen bacteria & sun. They are essentially required for human’s growth, maintenance, reproduction and lactation.

There are two classes of vitamins

1. Fat Soluble Vitamins - A vitamin that can be stored and accumulated in the liver and other fatty tissues.
Ex: Vitamin A, D, E, K
2. Water Soluble Vitamins - A vitamin that cannot be stored in the tissues. This kind of Vitamins must be provided regularly as deficiencies can develop in a short time.
Ex: Vitamin B, B1, B2, B6 & B12 and Niacin (Vitamin B3), Folic Acid (Vitamin B9) and Vitamin C

Vitamin A

Functions: Vitamin A helps to develop a healthy skin, nerve tissue and aids in building up resistance to infection. In addition improve Functions in eyesight and bone formation. All animals require a source of Vitamin A. It is especially important in the ration of pregnant females.
Deficiency signs: - Retarded growth in the young
                                   - Night blindness and reproductive disorders.
                                   - The development of a peculiar condition around the eyes known as Xerophthalmia.
Rich Foods: Sweet Potatoes, Cod liver oil, Carrots, Spinach, Mango, Broccoli, Water Melon, Milk

Vitamin E

Functions: The most widely accepted biological function of vitamin E is its antioxidant properties.
Deficiency signs: - Vision Deterioration
                                   - Muscle Weakness
                                   - Immune System Problems
                                   - Walking and coordination difficulties
Rich Foods: Whole Grains, Nuts and grains, Milk, Vegetable oils such as peanut oil, Olive Oil

Vitamin D

Functions: Vitamin D is essential for the proper utilization of calcium and phosphorus to produce normal, healthy bones.
Deficiency signs: - Rickets in children.
                                   - Osteomalacia in adults
                                   - Muscle weakness
                                   - Bony deformities
Rich Foods: Cheese, Egg yolks, Soy Milk, Cereals, Orange Juice

Vitamin K

Functions: Vitamin K is necessary for the maintenance of normal blood coagulation.
Deficiency signs: - Blood loses its power to clot or the time needed for clotting is longer and serious hemorrhages can result from slight wounds or bruises.
Rich Foods: Cooked dark green vegetables, such as spinach, kale and broccoli

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Functions: Vitamin B1 is required for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates.
Deficiency signs: - Loss of appetite
                                   - Muscular weakness
                                   - Severe nervous disorders
                                   - General weakness and wasting (Beriberi)
Rich Foods: Germinating part of cereal, whole meal, milk, egg, peas, beans

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Functions: Vitamin B2 is necessary for normal embryo development, important in the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates.
Deficiency signs: - Inflammation of lips & tongues
                                   - Waxy eruption
                                   - Cracks
                                   - Cornea infiltrated with blood vessels
Rich Foods: Milk and dairy products, yeast, green forages, well cured hay (especially alfalfa), whole grains, wheat bran and synthetic riboflavin rumen synthesis.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Functions: Vitamin B3 is required for oxidation and reduction in body tissue.
Deficiency signs: - Reddish-brown discoloration of skin
                                   - GIT inflammation
Rich Foods: whole grain cereal, milk, egg, liver, meat, vegetables.

Vitamin B6

Functions: Vitamin B6 is important for maintaining healthy brain functions, the formation of red blood cells, the breakdown of protein and the synthesis of antibodies in support of the immune system.
Deficiency signs: - Cracked and sore lips
                                   - Skin Rashes
                                   - Mood changes
                                   - Sore, glossy tongue
                                   - Tiredness and low energy
Rich Foods: Banana, Avocado, Lentils, Chicken breast, Sirloin Steak, Sun flower seeds

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)

Functions: Vitamin B9 is essentially give to pregnant women and women who plan to become pregnant because it reduces the risk for birth defects of a baby’s spin and brain. In addition it’s used to treatment of anemia.
Deficiency signs: - Loss of appetite
                                   - Forgetfulness
                                   - Diarrhea
                                   - Mental sluggishness
                                   - Poor growth
                                   - Shortness of breath
Rich Foods: Beets, Citrus foods, Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Eggs, Leafy Greens, Asparagus

Vitamin B12

Functions: Vitamin B12 is required for metabolism, the formation of red blood cells and maintenance of the central nervous system which includes the brain and spinal codes.
Deficiency signs: - Disturbed or blurred vision
                                   - High Temperature
                                   - Dizziness
                                   - Mood changes
                                   - Pale skin
Rich Foods: Tuna, Salmon, Sardines, Milk and Dairy Products, Eggs, Clams, Beef

Vitamin C

Functions: Vitamin C promotes a healthy immune system and wound heal. In addition maintains connective tissue and aids in the absorption of iron.
Deficiency signs: - weakness
                                   - Irritability
                                   - Hemorrhage
                                   - Gum inflammation
                                   - Bone degeneration
Rich Foods: Citrus Fruits, Lemon, Tomato, Leafy Vegetables

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